Glossary

Gender Identity

Gender identity is our internal and personal experience regarding our gender. The gender identity can correlate with the gender assigned at birth or can differ from it.

Gender Expression
Gender expression refers to the aspects of a person’s behavior, mannerisms, interests, appearance, etc. which serve to communicate a person’s identity and personality as they relate to gender.

SOGIESC
Legal acronym used to abbreviate Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sexual Characteristics. (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Sexual Characteristics). English acronym used to refer to these four elements of human sexuality.

The Yogyakarta Principles
The Yogyakarta Principles are a set of principles on the application of international human rights law in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity. The Principles affirm binding international legal standards with which all States must comply.

Transgender People
Term used to describe individuals who do not identify with the gender they were assigned at birth. Some people socially transition, whereby they might begin dressing, using names and pronouns and/or be socially recognized as another gender. Others undergo physical transitions in which they modify their bodies through medical interventions. Physical transitions and medical interventions are closer to gender expression than gender identity.

Transfeminine
Gender identity used to describe those who were assigned male at birth (AMAB) but identify as a gender closer to the feminine end of the gender spectrum. Transfeminine can be used as an umbrella term that includes feminine-aligned AMAB people and binary trans women in addition to those who do not consider themselves completely feminine.

Transmasculine
Gender identity used to describe those who were assigned female at birth (AFAB) but identify as a gender closer to the masculine end of the gender spectrum. Transmasculine can be used as an umbrella term that includes masculine-aligned AFAB people and binary trans men in addition to those who do not consider themselves completely masculine.

Non-Binary Trans
Gender identity used to describe those who were assigned male at birth (AMAB) or assigned female at birth (AFAB) that do not identify with the binary man/woman but instead they identify as gender neutral.

Cisgender
is an adjective, and umbrella term, that denotes that an individual identifies with the gender they were assigned at birth.

Gender Non-Conforming
Gender non-conforming refers to people who do not adhere to society’s rules about dress and activities for people that are based on their gender assigned at birth.

Genderqueer
Genderqueer is an umbrella term for non-binary gender identities, as well as an identity in its own right.

Two Spirit
It is a modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some indigenous North Americans to describe individuals who combined activities of both men and women with traits unique to their status as two spirits. Sometimes they were considered neither men nor women.

Muxe
Gender identity specific to the Oaxaca region and the indigenous Zapoteca culture. Muxe or muxhe is an assigned male at birth individual (AMAB) who dresses and behaves in ways otherwise associated with the female gender; they may be seen as a third gender.

Travesti
Gender identity used to describe those who were assigned male at birth (AMAB) but transition to the female gender. Travestis may identify as a woman or as a gender closer to the feminine end of the gender spectrum. It is one of the first trans identities that appeared in the western world. Travestis are usually associated with vulnerable social groups.

Gender Binary
The gender binary is a system that pairs together sex (which is based on individual’s reproductive anatomy) and gender (which refers to the socially constructed ideas and expectations that a culture has for a certain sex). it classifies two distinguishable, distinct, and oftentimes contrasting genders: masculine men with a penis and feminine women with a vagina. The gender binary does not encompass individuals who are born with non-binary reproductive organs (intersex) and excludes those who identify as transgender.

Assigned Gender At Birth
The determination of an infant’s gender at birth based on the genitalia they have. In the majority of cases, the gender of the child matches the child’s gender identity. In individuals who are born with non-binary reproductive organs the gender assignment can be problematic.

Intersex
An intersex person is an individual who has sex characteristics e.g. sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, and/or chromosome patterns that do not fit the typical definition of male or female bodies. If an intersex condition is discovered at birth or during childhood then medical procedures may be performed without the child or parent giving consent or even being aware. The main goal of the intersex human rights movement is to stop intersex genital mutilation and depathologize intersexuality.

Bodily Diversity
sex characteristics that an individual is born with. This term encompass sexual anatomies that do not fit the gender binary.

Cisnormativity
Cisnormativity is the assumption that all, or almost all, individuals are cisgender. This mean that they believe that all of those who were assigned female at birth are women and those who were assigned male at birth are men.

Gender Dysphoria
Medical term that appears on the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It is also known as Transsexualism by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). Some transgender people and researchers support declassification of gender dysphoria because they say the diagnosis pathologizes gender variance, reinforces the binary model of gender and can result in stigmatization of transgender individuals. The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization have received proposals from all over the world to declassify the term.

Transgender Pathologization
The notion that transgender people suffer from a mental or biological disorder. It was first used by the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization in their textbooks of conditions and diseases. It has an impact in other situations of life, such as discrimination; without a mandatory mental health diagnosis, they can’t access to some rights. Some examples are: health care, education, world of work, and legal identity. There are also hate speeches against transgender people, where -in most of them- are treated like “sick people.”

Treatments of Gender Expression
Hormonal and/or surgical intervention related with people’s sexual and reproductive health. Their purpose is to allow that people express their gender and/or regulate sexual and reproductive characteristics in a satisfactory way. People that look for this treatments are both cisgender and transgender. Some examples are: cross-sex hormones therapies, genital surgery, breasts surgery, gonad removal, different kinds of implants, etc.

Sexual Orientation
An inherent or immutable enduring emotional, romantic or sexual attraction to people of the same or different gender.

Lesbian
A (cisgender or transgender) woman who is emotionally, romantically or sexually attracted to other women.

Homosexual
A (cisgender or transgender) man who is emotionally, romantically or sexually attracted to other men.

Bisexual
A (cisgender or transgender) person who is emotionally, romantically or sexually attracted to more than one gender.

Heterosexual
A (cisgender or transgender) person who is emotionally, romantically or sexually attracted to what they consider their opposite gender.

Pansexual
A (cisgender or transgender) person who has the capability of attraction to others regardless of their gender identity.

Skoliosexual
A (cisgender or transgender) person who experiences sexual and romantic attraction to non-binary identified individuals or those who do not identify as cisgender.

Asexual
A (cisgender or transgender) person who does not experience sexual attraction. An asexual person can experience romantic attraction.

Heteronormativity
Heteronormativity is the collection of social norms and misplaced assumptions about how every person should be and is heterosexual. is the belief that heterosexuality is the “default, normal and ideal “ state of human being. In this viewpoint heterosexuality is preferred above other sexualities.

Violence Based on Prejudice
Crimes based on prejudices are rationalizations or justifications of negative reactions. For example a negative reaction before expressions of sexual orientation or gender identities. That is social and local violence and it is not part of the idiosyncrasy of the specific people involved. It requires a context and a social complicity.

Stigmatization
An association of disgrace or public disapproval with something, such as an attribute, condition or identity. The stigmatized are not simply different from others; society judges their attribute, condition or identity to be discrediting. It is understood by all to signify that its bearer is a deserving of social ostracism, infamy, shame, and condemnation.

Stereotype
¨Presumes that all members of a certain social group possess particular attributes or characteristics…. [Therefore] an individual, simply by virtue of membership in that group, is believed to conform to the generalized view or preconception.”